Studies in the experimental mice model with “lupus nephritis” and “focal segmental glomerulosclerosis” successfully indicated the efficacy of Antroquinonol on auto-immune disease of lupus-induced renal failure, and in the meantime explained the rationale of inhibiting systemic inflammation.The levels of urine protein and BUN were significantly decreased indicating the overall nephritis had been controlled.
Studies indicated that Antroquinonol can attenuate cellular levels of NF-κB(nuclear factor-κB) and TNF-α(Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha) which are considered as the important proteins involved in the inflammation pathway. Antroquinonol increases the level of Nrf2 and protects cells through modulating inflammatory and antioxidant pathways via induction of AMPK. Antroquinonol also activates AMP-activated protein kinase which is required for the lipid-lowering effect.
Oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis are involved in the development and progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a common form of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome that represents a therapeutic challenge because it has a poor response to steroids.
Antroquinonol has inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and inflammatory reactions and ameliorates FSGS renal lesions by modulating the pathogenic pathways of oxidative stress, inflammation, and glomerular sclerosis in the kidney. Studies has been revealed that Antroquinonol significantly
- attenuates proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and glomerulopathy, including epithelial hyperplasia lesions and podocyte injury;
- reduces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and expression of fibrosis-related proteins in the kidney;
- increases renal nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione peroxidase activity; and
- inhibits renal nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and decreases levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in serum and kidney tissue in a mouse FSGS model. Data suggest that Antroquninonol might be a potential therapeutic agent for FSGS, acting by boosting Nrf2 activation and suppressing NF-κB-dependent inflammatory and TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis pathways in the kidney.
Antroquinonol significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis
factor-α(TNF-α)a and interleukin-1β . Antroquinonol reduced urine protein and creatinine levels and suppressed the thickening of the kidney glomerular basement membrane, suggesting that Antroquinonol protects the kidney from immunological damage resulting from autoimmune disease.
In the body,more than half of LDL cholesterol catabolism takes place via a receptor-mediated pathway. An apolipoprotein, ApoB-100, which is virtually the only protein in the LDL particle, binds with LDL receptors(LDLR) in cells before the LDL particle is taken up into the cell and metabolized.
Antroquinonol has been shown in a cellular experiment to increase the expression of LDL receptor(LDLR) genes , suggesting that the activation of the LDL receptor results in LDL cholesterol-lowering effects.
- An Extract of Antrodia camphorata Mycelia Attenuates the Progression of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Prone NZB/W F1 Mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine;2011.
- Antroquinonol reduces oxidative stress by enhancing the Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibits inflammation and sclerosis in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine;50(11):1503-16.
- Antroquinonol differentially modulates T cell activity and reduces interleukin-18 production, but enhances Nrf2 activation, in murine accelerated severe lupus nephritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism;64(1):232-42.
- Antroquinonol displays anticancer potential against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a crucial role of AMPK and mTOR pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jan 15;79(2):162-71.
- Synthetic (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual actions against insulin resistance by triggering AMP kinase and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities.
- Effects of Antrodia Camphorata Mycelia Extract Containing Antroquinonol on Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Randomized Double-Blind Study. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 2017, 7, 73-80